'Write-off' - it's the phrase no driver ever wants to hear. 😭
But what exactly constitutes a write-off - and is it true that you can still drive and insure one?
Put simply: when you make a claim on your car insurance, your insurer might say your car is a 'write off'.
This means they think it's not worth repairing the car, given how much it would cost.
But, when you dig into it, it gets a little more complicated. Here's everything you need to know.
There are different categories for written-off cars: A, B, C, D, N, and S.
C and D aren't used anymore, but we'll still explain a little about how they used to work.
PS: in the chart below, if you click A, B, N and S in the left-hand side, you'll be taken to a full guide on each category.
|Category||What it means|
|Category A||Category A write-offs are completely unsalvageable and unsafe to drive. They have to be crushed, by law. This usually happens because the car's been destroyed in a fire or seriously damaged in another way.|
|Category B||With a Category B write-off, the *body* of the car has to be crushed, but you are allowed to keep some of the car parts.|
|Category C||Category C has now been replaced by Category S. It meant you could save the car but the insurer decided not to repair it.|
|Category D||Category D has been replaced by Category N. It meant you could save the car, and it would have been "economical" to repair it, but other costs - like getting it transported to a garage - would make the overall process "uneconomical".|
|Category N||Category N write-offs have got non-structural damage, but are still damaged enough that the insurer has decided not to repair it. It can often involve damage to the car's electrics. The car is not safe to drive without repair.|
|Category S||Category S write-offs have got structural damage which, given the cost, the insurer has decided not to repair. You have to get the structural damage repaired before it's legally safe to drive.|
The write-off process works like this:
Sometimes your car will be written off even if the damage isn't that bad.
Insurance companies write off cars because they have to buy expensive replacement parts
There are pretty high standards insurance companies have to follow when they repair your car after you make a claim. It has to be repaired to the same standard it was before the claim - and this can be spenny.
This is mainly because the big insurance companies guarantee that your repairs will be done by their "approved repairer network" for 3 years - even if you sell the car.
But that can mean the parts used are pretty expensive, which makes the cost of repairs go up pretty quickly.
Insurance companies will write off your car if it's "uneconomical" to repair
The other reason it takes surprisingly little for your car to be written off is that insurance companies are only looking at whether it's "economical" to repair your car.
Usually, this means your car's a write-off if it costs more than 50% or 60% of the car's value to repair it.
And it's all based on the value of your car now, not what you paid for it.
So if you've got an older car, and it's only worth £2,000, your insurer could declare it a write-off if fixing it would cost £1,000.
This is known as the repair-to-value ratio.
Not all written off cars have to be destroyed, just the really serious ones.
Because of this, some drivers prefer to keep hold of their write-offs and repair them themselves.
That means if you're buying a second-hand car, it could be a repaired write-off.
You need to be really careful when you buy a repaired write-off. For one thing, you need to be sure it's been repaired properly, or it might not be safe to drive.
And for another, driving an old write-off can have a pretty big effect on your car insurance.
If you're not sure if your car is written off, you can check online.
You have to tell your insurer if your car's written off.
That's because some insurance companies won't insure written-off cars. And if they do, they might not insure all categories of write-off.
So let them know, and tell them which car you want to insure.
If you don't tell them, and you need to make a claim on it, your insurance company might not pay out - even if they generally do insure repaired write-offs.
They'll probably cancel your insurance too, for "non-disclosure". Getting your policy cancelled by your insurer is really bad. It can make it tricky to get insured in future. At the very least, it usually makes your insurance more expensive.
But most of the time your insurance company will find out when you type in your car's registration number to get a quote. That data's usually sent automatically.
If your insurer does cover repaired write-offs, it might still be more expensive than a non-written-off car.
That's because people who drive write-offs tend to make more claims, or because it tends to be more expensive to repair. It could also be because they're concerned it's not safe to drive.
Some insurance companies won't pay out when you make a claim on a repaired write-off, either. And if they do, it might be a lot lower than it would be for a non-written-off car.
It's worth getting a few different quotes and, if the price isn't right, consider switching.
If your insurance company writes off your car after you make a claim, you can usually buy it back from them if you'd rather keep it.
However, this isn't possible if it's a category A. Those cars have to be crushed, by law, because they're not safe to drive. So you won't be able to buy back a category A or B write-off.
If you want to keep your car after it's written-off, you'll get a payout of the market value, minus whatever the insurance company could have got for it from the salvage dealer (and any other admin fees they charge).
So let's say your car is worth £4,000, and the repairs after your accident cost £5,000.
That wouldn't be worth repairing. So your insurance company would call it a write-off.
But if you wanted to buy it back, they'd let you do that. You'd have to pay whatever they could have got for it by scrapping it. Let's say that's £1,500.
If you bought it back, you'd get:
Most of the time, buying it back won't make financial sense. And that's because, even after repairs, a car that's been written off tends to be worth about 20% less. Once you'd spent the £5,000 getting it repaired, you'd be left with a car worth, at most, £3,200.
There are lots of ways to value a car, and lots of companies that put together valuations.
Your insurance company will have their own company that they rely on to figure out vehicle values. If your car's written off, that's the report that they'll go with.
Most insurers rely on a company called Glass's, who come up with three different prices:
If you're not happy with the valuation your insurer comes up with, you can hire an engineer to give you a first-hand report.
But remember that the valuation is the value of the car at the time, not when you bought it. Your car might be worth a lot less when you make the claim than it was when you bought it.
If you're convinced your insurer's valuation is too low, you can negotiate with them.
Before you do, you need to get lots of evidence that the valuation isn't right.
Get as many quotes from different sources as you can. If they all come out much higher than the one your insurance company offers, you might have a case.
You can also list anything you've done to the car that you think should make it more valuable, like a new set of tyres.
And if you're not getting anywhere, you can kick up a fuss with the Financial Ombudsman Service (FOS).
Deciding to get your car scrapped is different to having it written off by your insurer.
Getting your car scrapped doesn't automatically cancel your insurance, so you'll need to get in touch with your insurance company and cancel it separately.
It’s good practice to tell your insurer that you no longer own your vehicle.
You'll need to have your car insured right until the minute you sign it over to the scrapyard. Until then, it's still your car.
Because of our old friend Continuous Insurance Enforcement (CIE), cars need to be insured all the time, even if it's just sitting on your drive. The only way around it is to "declare your car off-road".
If you want to do that, you need to register a "Statutory Off-Road Notice" (SORN). It's all as exciting as it sounds.
But remember that SORNing your car doesn't cancel your car insurance automatically, either.
Once the scrapyard has taken your car away, it's their property, so you're not responsible for getting it insured. Make sure you cancel your insurance as soon as you can.
The DVLA puts a little mark against a car's Vehicle Registration Number when a car's written off.
By law, you have to tell the DVLA if your insurer writes off your car. Even if it's repairable. And even if you choose to buy it back and repair it.